Lesson 26 level 7

cessation, arouse, wean, distastesympathizepredicament, expression, figure, ire, conservationist, puristconsortium, obsequioussurrogate,
warfare, guerrilla, overthrow, deterrent, agony, descendant



News 1

-he called for an immediate cessation of hostilities. (=when the fighting stops in a war)

-The probability of smoking cessation increased by 40% if a person smoked less than
10 cigarettes per day.
-*This led to a wider cessation of hostilities, although it was never formalized.


cessation: end, ending, termination, stopping, halting

antonyms: start, resumption

News 2


Consequently, the Franco regime could not institute a programme of land reform without arousing the hostility of the landowners.


-His strange behavior aroused my suspicions.
-*they had aroused his hostility and suspicion.
-The resignation of the managing director is certain to arouse new fears about the
future of the company.

-The success of the recent TV series has aroused young people’s curiosity about
nature in general.
-an ability to influence the audience and to arouse the masses.
-*that will arouse great controversy.
-she was aroused from her sleep by her mother.



1.cause, evoke, pique, whet, stir, generate, provoke
2.wake, wake up, waken, awaken

News 3


-It arouses dim memories of that tragic time when the flow of milk ceased for the child, when he was weaned.

-Some infants are weaned at six months.


News 4

-Her distaste has since evolved into ambivalent fascination.

-Gina moved away from me with a look of distaste on her face.
-Oliver looked with distaste at my clothes.
-He had a distaste for violence, but in his business it was a necessity.
-He held out his arms to Ion, who stepped back in cold distaste.
-*He looked with distaste at the rotting timbers above them.
-*I stood behind him, trying to conceal my fear and distaste.

-*her distaste for any form of compromise.
-she has shown a distaste for politics.

distaste: dislike



News 5

-*It’s hard not to sympathize with the plight of single parents in today’s world.
-My dear, I completely understand and sympathize, but there’s not much I can do
about it, really.
-*Anyone who has ever waited in line at the Department of Motor Vehicles will
sympathize with this dilemma.
-they sympathize with feminist critiques of traditional theory.(agree, support)

-he sympathized with his tearful wife.

1.feel/be sorry for
2. agree, support



News 6

-it is easy to understand and sympathize with his predicament.

-But he says the company basically is in the same predicament it was 10 years ago.
-How do the new classical macroeconomists explain that predicament?

-*The pathos of Antoine’s predicament is clearly articulated in this passage.


predicament: plight, difficult situation, dilemma



News 7

-There was no expression on his face, just the blank skin facade of hunger and tiredness.

-‘Shadow-boxing’? I’ve never heard that expression before!
-“I’m not eating it,” Maria said, with an expression of disgust on her face.
-“It’ll be alright in the end’ — that was my mother’s favourite expression.
-Each of the statues has a different facial expression.
-He said he didn’t care — well actually he used a rude expression that I can’t
-His expression became serious as he listened to her story.
-I don’t normally use that expression myself, but I’ve heard other people use it
-The expression on her face told me that she didn’t want to discuss it.
-x² + 4 is an algebraic expression.
-You use the expression “break a leg” to wish an actor good luck.
-Her expression indicated that the call was urgent.


News 8

-The glittering figure who impressed us so much.

-her tall slender figure.

-“”We need $30,000 to get the project started.” “”How close are you to that

-*a figure in a red robe.
-a rare 16th century Japanese figure.
-Ali was one of the great sports figures of this century.
-Caroline really has a terrific figure.
-*Dark figures emerged from the building, and disappeared into the night.
-*Exercise and a sensible diet will help you get your figure back after having a

-Government figures published today show that unemployment is rising again.
-He offered to buy the team for the figure of $140 million.
-I saw the figure of a woman below the bridge.
-*Inflation in Japan is around 3%, while the German figure is now over 4%.
-Ohio’s employment figures for December are not available.
-On a cheque, write the amount in words and in figures.
-sales figures.

-She eats enormous meals but still manages to keep her figure.
-Susie wore a close-fitting black dress which made the most of her figure.
-She turned slowly and looked at the figure in the chair.
-He needs to sit down and figure out how many people are coming.
-I’m telling you because I figure you’re the only one who can keep a secret.
-The operation went fine, and they figure he’ll be home next week.
-There has been criticism about the current method for figuring social security
retirement benefits.
-What do you figure his chances of winning are?
-You haven’t figured it out yet?


News 9

-But she also attracted the ire of advocacy groups.

-She did not raise the ire of teachers.
-That, too, is raising the neighbours’ ire.


News 10

-*the plans provoked the ire of conservationists.

-But conservationists said words must be backed by actions.
-*So conservationists hope they can preserve the area’s outstanding natural beauty
and cater for the tourists too.
-*This would pose historians and conservationists with a dilemma.

News 11


-But the idea of such a garage has drawn the ire of park purists.

-Baseball purists would be against reducing the number of games.
-Thirdly, it was an answer to the jazz purists.

News 12


-Despite extensive plans by the consortium for landscaping, the conservationists claim the dump would turn into an eyesore.

-The cost of making the programs was shared by a consortium of six public
television stations.
-It was hoped that sale of the stake would benefit the consortium.
-*The consortium is accused of depositing more than $ 1.4m in Mr Sole’s accounts
over three years.
-*The bid was made by a consortium headed by Sir James Goldsmith through a specially
created company called Hoylake.


News 13


-In a court in which obsequious obedience to the monarch was the rule.

-an obsequious smile.
-All this obsequious praise for his actions is enough to make most normal people
-The salesman’s obsequious manner was beginning to irritate me.
-The waiter was polite and efficient, but not obsequious.
-an obsequious manservant welcomed them.
-*As it was, he was forced to his usual obsequious tolerance.
-In fact, the letter is almost obsequious.
-*Perhaps television was just too obsequious towards leaders to be revealing.

obsequious: kiss-ass, ass-kissing

News 14

-wives of MPs are looked on as surrogates for their husbands while the latter are
at Westminster.
-The old couple across the street were like surrogate grandparents to me.
-William was acting as a surrogate father for his brother’s son.

-Bright-light therapy is used as a surrogate for sunshine.

-The President’s surrogates have been campaigning for him nonstop.
-But I have to resist trying to make them surrogates of me.

surrogate mother also surrogate.

surrogate: substitute, proxy, replacement; deputy

News 15

– Some argue that modern commerce is a surrogate for warfare.

-the realities of modern warfare.
-the problems of drugs and gang warfare.
-*a secret underground chemical warfare *plant.
-the history of modern warfare.
-It quickly made Hanoi the most heavily bombed city in the history of warfare.


warfare: fighting, war, combat, conflict, armed conflict, struggle, military action


*plant: Check it in your dictionary too.





News 16

– guerrilla warfare.


-this town fell to the guerrillas.
-there was fierce fighting between guerrillas and government troops.
-American troops found themselves fighting a guerrilla war.
-left-wing guerrillas.
-*Four Western tourists held by armed guerrillas in Kashmir began their seventh month in captivity today.

-*Red Cross officials condemned the treatment that imprisoned guerrillas have
-*The guerrillas began their assault on March 8th.


guerrillas: partisan; rebel, radical, revolutionary, revolutionist; terrorist

News 17

-The rebels aimed to overthrow the government through protracted guerrilla warfare.

-*the President was overthrown in a bloodless coup.
-*military coups which had attempted to overthrow the King.
-*a discovery that could overthrow conventional ideas about computing
-A small group of military officers overthrew the President in September.
-President Kassem was overthrown and murdered in 1963.

-The organization was dedicated to the overthrow of capitalism.
-the overthrow of Mussolini.

-He came to power after the overthrow of Haile Selassie.

News 18


-As in human warfare, chemical defences are essentially deterrents rather than
everyday weapons.

-The small fines for this type of crime do not act as much of a deterrent.
-*Window locks are an effective deterrent against burglars.
-the deterrent effect of prison sentences.
-Experts do not agree about whether the death penalty acts as a deterrent.
-The fines are large enough to be an effective deterrent against speeding.
-The small fines for copying software were not much of a deterrent.
-The special paint is meant to be a deterrent to graffiti artists.
-Window locks are a cheap and effective deterrent.
-This has proven to be a strong deterrent against theft.

-cameras are a major deterrent to crime.
-Britain’s nuclear deterrent.

deterrent: discouragement, dissuasion, brake, restraint, block, barrier


burglar: someone who goes into houses, shops etc to steal things.

News 19


-Except for Aunt Pat, my transition to city life was a series of agonies.

-He was in agonies of remorse.
-In the book she describes the agony of watching her child die.
-It was agony not knowing where he was.
-With renewed fighting for control of the capital, there seems to be no end to the
region’s agony.

News  20


-The third is an immune system, used only by the descendants of reptiles.

-their descendants still live in the area.
-Paul claims to be a descendant of King Charles I.
-His descendants were to live here for the next 120 years.


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